Friday, May 22, 2020
About a hundred years after the Civil War, almost all American lived under the Jim Crow laws. The Jim Crow Laws actually legalized segregation. These racially enforced rules dominated almost every aspect of life, not to mention directed the punishments for any infraction. The key reason for the Jim Crow Laws was to keep African Americans as close to their former status as slaves as was possible. The following paper will show you the trials and tribulations of African Americans from the beginning through to the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s where segregation was at its peak. Terrified by the changing of the BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s status, before the Civil War had even finished, Southerners started a huge counterattack aimed at overpowering their former slaves. In 1896 theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They were made to use separate facilities such as restrooms, restaurants, and waiting rooms. Blacks were prevented from renting land outside of the towns. They were forbidden to go anywhere they wanted. They were prevented from marrying any one outside of their race. However, the Grandfather Clauses that were introduced allowed men who did not pass the literacy test to vote on if their father or grandfather had been able to vote before the reconstruction. African Americans were not allowed to vote until 1867. The Jim Crow Laws however chose to further restrict the Blacks by adding etiquette laws. Almost all of society believed that the Whites were better then the Blacks in all ways, including intelligence, being civil and having morals. It was believed by the Whites that sexual relations between races would cause a mongrel race to be born therefore in return destroying America . They thought that if they were to treat the Blacks as equals then this would encourage interracial relationships. They used violence to keep the Blacks in place and at the bottom of the racial chain. This caused several Jim Crow Laws to be set forth such as a black man could not shake hands with a white man because it meant that they were socially equal. A black man could not also extend a hand or other body part towards a White woman for the fear of being accused of raping her. Blacks and Whites were forbidden from eating together and if they did theShow MoreRelatedThe New Jim Crow Law1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMass incarceration is known as a net of laws, policies, and rules that equates to the American criminal justice system. This series of principles of our legal system works as an entrance to a lifelong position of lower status, with no hope of advancement. Mass incarceration follows those who are released from prison through exclusion and legalized discrimination, hidden withi n America. The New Jim Crow is a modernized version of the original Jim Crow Laws. It is a modern racial caste system designedRead MoreAfrican Americans in Prison and the Jim Crow Laws Essay915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe United States Population but make up over 40% of the current jail and prison population. A black man is five times more likely to be convicted of a crime than a white man in the United States. How far have we really come sinse the Jim Crow laws? During the Jim Crow Era African-Americans in some states were treated as second-class citizens in every aspect of life from how they interact with White Americans to not having the right to vote. Many people would say we as a nation are far passed thoseRead MoreJim Crow Laws On The South Of The United States1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws which enforced de jure racial segregation in the South of the United States. They represented the legitimization of anti-black racism. And it was not o nly a series of anti-black laws, but also a way of blacksÃ¢â¬â¢ miserable life. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities of former Confederate State of America with a Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ status for African Americans. For this research paper, I want to focus on the origins and the content of JimRead MoreIs The Jim Crow Laws?962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe topic that I chose for my research paper is the Jim Crow laws. I chose this topic because during this time period the Jim Crow laws were a huge obstacle that our country had to overcome in order to grow. The Jim Crow laws were created to separate whites and blacks in their everyday lives, allowing for no interaction between races. The Jim Crow Laws were enforced in the southern, United States. The laws existed between 1877 and the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, around the time the reconstruction period was ending andRead MoreJim Crow Essay705 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages2010 Term Paper The Strange Career of Jim Crow by Van Woodward is based on the time period surrounding the Civil Rights Movement. This book is an accurate account of events that occurred during this time. It shows how the 1896 US Supreme Court Ruling affected blacks and the obstacles they faced to overcome. This book shows how the rights of African Americans have evolved over time. Van Woodward did an excellent job illustrating the events of history with The Strange Career of Jim Crow and createdRead MoreHow Black Codes And Jim Crow Laws1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCodes Led to Jim Crow Laws What I Already Knew and What I Wanted to Know For my research topic I chose Ã¢â¬Å"Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws.Ã¢â¬ I chose this topic because I have heard about Jim Crow Laws many times through television, books, and history classes but never in depth. I wanted to know more about the topic, along with black codes, which I have never heard about and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know existed. Choosing this topic allowed me to gain more knowledge on both of these topics. Before this paper, my knowledgeRead MoreThe New Jim Crow By Michelle Alexander1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The New Jim Crow Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Jim Crow Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness examine the Jim Crow practices post slavery and the mass incarceration of African-American. The creation of Jim Crows laws where used as a tool to promote segregation among the minority and white American. Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Jim Crow Mass takes a look at Jim Crow laws and policies were put into place to block the social progression African-American from the post-slavery to the civilRead More African American Social Standings Essay1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages This research paper will discuss the African American social standing in America throughout history. It will discuss the highs and lows and the pros and cons of the progression and also the different periods that African Americans lived through since they were brought to America. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The progression of African Americans in America began with a practice called slavery. Slavery is the state of a person who is the chattel of another. It began in 1441 when Portuguese men kidnapped 12 black AfricansRead MoreDesegregation within a Nation Essay1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesShe ties in fictional things and events to give you a feel of what it may have been like for people back then through her characters. There were laws in the South during the Civil Rights Movement called Jim Crow laws. These laws were created in the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s and the name of the laws are believed to come from a character in a popular minstrel song. The laws were to segregate the African American race from using the same bathroom facilities, railways, streetcars, public waiting rooms and restaurants.Read MoreHistorical Report on Race Eth/125 Essay904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHistorical Report on Race Jim, it was great to hear from you after so many years of us not getting in touch with each other. You mentioned in your last letter that you were writing a research paper on the African American history in the United States, and you were hoping I could share some of my experiences and knowledge of my race for your paper. I would love to offer my insight to you for your research. You may be surprised to find out that the first Africans came to North America a full year
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Essays on Weird Non-Profit Organizations Annotated Bibliography The paper "Weird Non-Profit Organizations" is an amazing example of an annotated bibliography on business. Name: Adult Industry Medical (AIM) Health Care Foundation About Organization: This non-profit corporation is created for caring for the physical and emotional needs of sex workers and all those people who work in the adult entertainment industry. It provides HIV and STD testing, treatment and counseling services and also provides condoms, pap smears, psychiatric assessment, drug and alcohol counseling, chiropractic healing and various other related things to the concerned workers. AIM wants to be a leader in promoting safe and responsible sexual behavior, not only for sex workers but for everyone.Ã Name: Guide Dogs of America About Organization: This organization provides free of charge guide dogs and instruction in their use, to blind and visually impaired people from the U.S and Canada in order to make their life easier. The organization raises puppies and trained them so that they may help the visually impaired persons to help them in mobilizing and doing other daily chores of l ife.Ã Name: Forgotten CatsÃ About Organization: The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is Ã¢â¬Å"to reduce the unwanted cat population without killing themÃ¢â¬ . Its objective is to reduce the amount of feral cat population by trapping them and neutering them. The organization is also trying to provide a home to adoptable cats.Ã Name: Accuracy in MediaÃ About Organization: The main purpose of this organization is to resist the inaccuracies and one-sidedness of the American media. The organization was founded in 1969 by a group of concerned citizens including economist Reed Irvine. It started its operation by sending letters to newspaper editors for the correction of mistakes done. In case, any newspaper refused to do so, the organization bought advertising space in the paper to print the correction. From then onward, AIM initiated numerous steps for making the American media transparent and fair.Name: Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW)Ã About Organization: As the name suggests, CAGW objectives are to eliminate waste, fraud, abuse, mismanagement, and inefficiency in the Federal Government. CAGW represents more than one million members and supporters nationwide.Ã Name: The Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee About Organization: Founded in 1995, this non-for-profit organization claims itself to be the largest natural habitat refuge developed especially for African and Asian elephants. Most surprisingly, it operates on 2,700 acres in Hohenwald, Tennessee. Its mission is somewhat unique Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"to provide a haven for old, sick or needy elephantsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"to provide education about the crisis facing these Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ endangered creaturesÃ¢â¬ .Ã Name: Blinded Veterans Association (BVA) About Organization: This organization aims to help all legally blinded veterans by making life better for them. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter whether they become blind during or after their military service.Ã Name: Bikers Against Drunk DriversÃ About Organization: BADDÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose is to reduce the incidence caused by drunk driving and its consequences by conducting awareness programs in malls and major events, through media and by arranging annual tours.Ã Name: One Laptop per ChildÃ About Organization: Formed in January 2005, OLPC is a U.S. based not-for-profit organization with an aim to Ã¢â¬Å"create educational opportunities for the world's poorest children by providing each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptopÃ¢â¬ . Such an organization has so much importance for the future prosperity of our world. The idea is so unique and it is indeed a mega project which involves the production of hundreds of thousands of laptops.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(221) " considerable segment of liability structure is debt securities, which mainly content in government bonds, given that the amounts of issued had been increased from Ã ²\?157,mom to Ã ²\?211 ,mom from 2008 to 2009\." Generally considered as the biggest financial crisis since the Great Depression, the Global Financial Crisis (SGF) was followed by the European sovereign debt crisis, which heavily affected most European nations in early 2010. This report will analyses the impact of the crisis on the performance and risk exposure of two major banks: Alpha Bank (ABA) and Deutsche Bank (DB).. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of banksÃ¢â¬â¢ performance or any similar topic only for you Order Now Alpha Bank, the second largest Greece bank, locates in one of the five Euro-zone nations which suffered the most following the global crisis. At the same time, Deutsche Bank (DB) is a German bank which operates in both investment and commercial banking sectors. In particular, this report will study the asset and liability structure, the performance as well as the market and off-balance sheet risk. Also, the annual performance of 2008 to 2010 will be analyses in order to fully capture the impact of the financial crisis on these selected banks. 1. 1 Asset, Liability Structure and Risk Exposures 1. 1. Analysis of Lloyd Banking Group (LAG) Table 1: Capital Raising Activities (Liability Structure) Figure 1 Figure 2 The bank operates in both commercial and investment sections which contents in detail, wholesale, insurance and investment as its main business activities. Deposit is the main source of funding, given that the proportional ways remains above 50%during these 6 years. Generally speaking, Deposits are more reliable compare to other capital raising activities. Noticing that even during 2008 to 2010, the Deposits were lightly effect by SGF, which means retail deposits are less volatile and less sensitive to shocks. In addition, the bank was voted by ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest the most trusted bank of Britain in the 2008. LAG as a function of commercial bank, a large and versified customer base kept the bank safe during the SGF and European debt crisis. Wholesale is the second major part of their business. Figure 2 has shown that, Debt securities take around 20% during 2007 to 2012, which implies that, LAG raises not enough funds from deposits. However, wholesale is sensitive to changes in the market. As the wholesale depositors are able to transfer the fund if others bank provides better offer to them. LAG have to undertake higher withdraw risk. LAG introduced new pricing management of saving products from 2011 in order to minimize withdraw risk. The benefit for this new plan is increasing deposit balances and reducing the proportion of wholesale. Furthermore, because of LB is a diversified bank in British, insurance division is the third mainly activity for the bank to raise fund. However, insurance may exposures liquidity risk, if policyholder who is seeking to cash in their financial claims immediately or some unexceptional accident occurs, the bank has to get huge fund to pay for them. According to LagÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report, the liabilities of insurance remains around 13% from 2007 to 2012, which took up higher proportion of total liabilities. However, since the flood happened in late 2007 and therefore the bank had to pay the claims, the bank had a highest percentage of insurance liability compare to other 5 years. Besides, due to SGF and European debt crisis during 2009 to 2012, higher unemployment rates shrink the AukÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, the proportion of liability of insurance policy also affected. Finally, basing on the Figure 2 we can find that, derivative financial insurance only has small proportion in this structure, due to LAG is able to raise enough fund from deposit, wholesale and insurance sections. Table 2: Portfolio Asset Allocation (Asset Structure) Figure 3 As a largest commercial bank in K, the main source of investment of LAG is Loans, which take up over half proportion of its total asset. This type of assets was allocated to households, firms and public sectors. According the annual report of the bank, personal mortgages play an important role in loan. However, these assets are exposed to credit risk and default risk. Therefore, LB engages reverse repurchase agreements for collateralized loans in order to reduce risks. The second main source of investment of LAG is Trading and other financial Asset at fair value through profit or loss. Comparing to loans, debt securities are more sensitive and exposed to the credit risk. However, government and corporate securities are taking larger proportion in total Trading and other financial Asset at fair value through profit or loss. As these types of securities are more stable and reliable, this credit risk is mostly mitigated. 1. 1. 2 Analysts of BIN Paris (BIN) Table 3: Capital Raising Activities (Liability Structure) Figure 4 BIN Paris is a universal bank which participates in retail and investment sectors. According to the chart shown above, the main source of Buns capital raised by raiding derivative instruments in financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss from 2007 and took a Jumped up approximately 25% in 2008 due to Global Financial Crisis(SGF). Generally speaking, derivatives trading are carrying higher risks than other class of liabilities, such as credit risk, market risk, currency risk and interest rate risk. Because they are sensitive to the market changes and lenders are less loyal to the bank, but respectively this source of funds can generate high returns to make the bank become profitable. However, the liability structure of BIN was not constantly unchanged. In the following next two years 2009 and 2010, the main component shifted to deposits due to SGF which brought an unfavorable economy recession all over the world. This strategy of the bank intended to reduce the risk exposures via decreasing trading of risky financial instruments and more relying on deposits to raise capital in order keep the bank in a safer base during the worse recession time. The capital raising structure changed back again from 2011, noticing that unlike 2007 and 2008, the proportions of deposits and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss became approximately close amounts. However, derivatives trading are still playing an important role in Buns capital raising activities. Another considerable segment of liability structure is debt securities, which mainly content in government bonds, given that the amounts of issued had been increased from Ã ²?157,mom to Ã ²?211 ,mom from 2008 to 2009. You read "Analysis of banksÃ¢â¬â¢ performance" in category "Papers" Due to the bank changed the major capital raising activity to deposits in 2009 and 2010, meanwhile it had increased issue in debt securities in order to raise more efficient funds. This behavior can be explained that the bank was worrying about only relied on deposits as not enough and trying to diversified risks via shifting liquidity risk (from deposits) to default and credit risk. Table 4: Portfolio Asset Allocation (Asset Structure) Figure 5 The main source of investment of BIN is financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, which accounted more than 50% of total assets through 2007 to 2008. Again, this type of assets mainly consists in trading of derivative instruments, repurchase agreements afterwards and other securities transactions. In practice, derivatives trading can generate higher returns but will carry more risks because they should eave to meet what the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and generally they are sensitive to the change of market. Therefore, the risk exposures not only content credit risk, but also put the bank faces interest rate risk and currency risk. L The second considerable segment of investment is loans which mainly comprised of loans to customers. Noticing that the amounts started increasing from 2009, which accounted up to 40% of total assets (compared to 2008 was only 25%), the portions are getting close to the main component, trading of financial assets. Throwing back to SGF and debt crisis, increased in loans and decreased in trading risky assets might be considered as a strategy for BIN to diversify its several risks as we mentioned previously but this time default risk would also be raised. However, derivatives trading are still playing an important role over these six years. In addition, available-for-sale financial assets have been significantly increased in 2009, the following year after SGF. It major contents bonds particularly in government bonds. The main reason could be government bonds are the safest investment way, however, default risk may be considered in this case. . 1. 3 Differences in asset, liability structure and risk exposure Comparing the asset and liability structure between LAG and BIN, the significant difference is the main source of the capital raising activities and asset allocations between these two banks are different. LAG is much more relying on customersÃ¢â¬â¢ deposits, a safer way to raise funds which allows LAG has a reliable capital base and confident level to go through the SGF in 2008 also the European debt crisis in 2010. In contrast, BIN changed its capital raising structure twice from changing the portions between derivatives raiding to raise funds on deposits in response to the impacts of SGF and debt crisis. Additionally, the core functions of these two banks are different. LAG is focusing on customersÃ¢â¬â¢ deposits and making loans to them. However, BIN is much more concentrating on derivatives trading in both asset and liability parts (even though it shifted the main component of capital raising activity from financial liabilities to deposits between 2009 and 2010 but derivatives transactions still played an important role during those two years. ) Overall, BIN is much more sensitive to the economy and surely it carries more risks than LAG. . 1. Impacts of SGF and Debt Crisis on Asset and Liability Structure Lloyd Banking Group (LAG) For the asset structure, due to the financial hardships that many households and businesses are experiencing, as a result of the recent economic decline in the UK. LAG committed to help customers in these challenging times, which reflective of our relationship-based approach. In Retail segment, we maintained strong level of mortgage lending to new lending, and helped thousands of customers to buy new homes. As shown in the diagram above, we can see that the total asset has increased room IEEE,mom to El ,027,mom in two yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ time. An increasing of 57. 55% reflects that with a 61. 25% increase in loans and advances to customers. There are strong levels of customer lending growth in commercial banks, corporate markets and mortgages. For the Liability side, the percentage of total liability has greater changed in 2009, which given that increased up to 56. 64%. After the SGF, the total liabilities still stand at a higher level in the following years as long as the European debt crisis occurred in 2010. Deposit, debt securities in issue and the liabilities of insurance are he three main components be affected. As LAG is the largest bank in I-J, it provides more confident for their customers. Even The bank experienced SGF and European debt crisis, deposit still bring positive effect for the group. Compare 2008 to sassÃ¢â¬â¢s deposits can be found that, there is 51. 46% shapely increasing during 2008-2009, due to more customers lose confident for others investment companies, also getting less people put the money for investment during such weaken economic period. That is the reason explains that why does deposit continuously grow during this period as en of the good reputation banks in British. Table 5 Besides, according to the table shown above, the issue of debt securities have greater increased due to the medium term notes issues changed, which implies that even LAG has sufficient fund to overcome the challenge during SGF, but they still restrained funds through issuing medium term notes in order to provide more fund to help their customers, Furthermore, the higher unemployment rate in UK due to SGF and European debt crisis, more people were getting to claim their insurance compensations, therefore the liability of insurance policy had also been affected. According to the balance sheet has shown, the liability of insurance policy has 60. 8% increased from 2008 to 2009. Also from 2009 to 2012, the liability of insurance still maintain in higher level. Overall, as LAG is reliable and stable bank in I-J, the main structure of asset and liability did not changed by the Crisis. BIN Paris (BIN) In regards of Buns capital raising structure had been changed twice during 2007 to 2012. The first change was in the year after 2008 SGF, the bank shifted its major capital raising activity from trading on derivatives (financial liabilities at fair value wrought profit or loss) to deposits. Considering the increased in trading financial instruments, which was the core activity to raise both total liabilities and total assets to history high respectively Ã ²?2,016,mom and Ã ²?2,075,mom in 2008. It leaded the bank with higher risk exposures as well as the leverage level had been increased due to derivatives trading is sensitive to the market and risky. Therefore the bank changed the major component of liability structure to deposits in 2009 in order to reduce risking tried to keep the bank in a safer base during the worse recession time. At the meantime, the bank increased issue in debt securities that attempted to raise more efficient funds in case of relying on deposits was not enough. In 2011 after the European debt crisis, the bank changed its core capital raising activity back to trading on financial instruments again. As an investment bank is a function of BIN Paris, the second changed of its capital structure indicated that the bank already passed the hard time and everything went back on the right track. The major component of the asset structure was financial assets at fair value through profit or loss from 2007 to 2012. In 2009 it had been decreased from 60% to 40%,but the bank increased the portions loaned to Global Financial Crisis,and this class of asset kept stable in the next following 3 years. However, trading on derivatives is still playing an important role overall. In addition, according to the increase in issue of debt securities especially in bonds had been increased in its liability structure, therefore, the available-for-sale financial assets had a greater Jumped up during the same year and gradually went down later on. Overall, the impacts of SGF on BIN were far worse than the European debt crisis. 2 PERFORMANCE Analysts 1. 2. 1 Return on Equity (ROE) Definition: See footnoted Figure 6 According to the chart, the ROE of LAG deceased seriously from 2007. In 2010 to 2012, it appeared a little recovering signal but still showing a declining pattern over these six years. During 2007 to 2008 both of the net income and total equity were decreased slightly, therefore, ROE decreased. However, even though the net income only had a little increased in 2009, but due to the total equity greatly Jumped up, the ROE decreased further. After 2010, ROE already deceased to history low given at 5. 4%, because of the negative net income as well as the total equity still stayed at higher level. The falling net income was primary to fewer increased in total operating income but greater increased in the impairment cost. The main reason could be the bank need to increase impairment cost to recover credit risk during SGF and European debt crisis. On the other hand, the size of total equity getting larger, this fact implied that, LAG was seeking more capital fund its financial activities in order to go through the poor economic period. Therefore, the ratio shown the bank experienced unfavorable profitability during those two recession periods Regarding to BIN Paris, the Return on Equity ratio dramatically decreased from 19. 6% to 6. 6% in 2008. It gradually recovered back in the next following years after SGF but it slightly dropped gain after the 2010 European debt crisis. Due to the banks main source of finance is making money via trading derivatives, this pattern of changing exactly responds to the market conditions due to financial and debt crisis, also explains that the bank is very sensitive to the market. However, compare to the regenerates drop off in SGF, the impact of debt crisis was not significant through looking at the chart. Compare these two patterns of ROE; LAG is showing a declining figure which indicates that the bank had a deeper impact by the financial and the debt crisis. On the other hand, the effect on BIN was significant only shown at the SGF period, therefore, BIN seems to has a better performance overall. 1. 2. RETURN ON ASSET (ROAR) Definition: see footnoted Figure 7 In term of LabÃ¢â¬â¢s performance can be shown that, the greater decline in ROAR consists in declining of net income and total assets. The central bank cut the interest rate again and again in this recession period that encouraged more people to borrow money from bank to fund their mortgages or businesses. According to the balance sheet, the total assets sharply increased from IEEE,mom to El ,027,mom in 2008 to 2009, and then kept staying at a higher level in the following years. However, as we have analyses in the ROE part, net income decreased dramatically to negative percentages, due to total operating income did not change as lower interest rate, but the impairment cost has greater increasing in order to recover the credit risk. As a result, the net income becomes negative. Similarly, ROAR was deceasing dramatically during 2009-2011. According to the ROAR ratios of BIN, it has shown a similar pattern of trend as ROE. The ROAR sharply dropped 0. 32% in 2008 and recovered back in the next two years but slightly went down after the debt crisis. Considering that the net income of BIN in 2008 was incredibly dropped down over 60% from Ã ²?8,311 millions to Ã ²?3,millions. No matter how the total assets had a greater increased in the same year, the fluctuation of net income was the most important reason determinate the hanged in ROAR. Again, due to the bank is sensitive to the change of market parameters, we can clearly see that the worse market condition due to SGF brought a negative impact to the bank and it was far more worse than the time during the European debt crisis. In conclusion, both of two banks were decreasing in ROAR during the weak economic period in 2008. The main reason was both of them had greater increased in total asset but the net income stayed at a relatively lower level. In the following years, BIN started to recover back and maintained in a stable level, UT LAG was continuously decreasing to negative due to total asset was maintain in higher level in debt crisis period. 1. 2. PROFIT MARGIN (PM) Definition: see footnoted Figure 8 According to the graph above, LAG had strong profitability in 2007 but it declined to 22. 43% due to SGF then slightly recovered in 2009. However, as the European debt crisis developed in late 2009, the PM continuing dropped out to the lowest, shown at -59. 62% in 2011. The reason is during this weaken economic period, interest and similar income decreasing as lower interest rate, and impairment increasing. This unfavorable decreasing during debt crisis period implies that LAG undertake loss. While the PM drives the ROAR to decline in this period. The European debt crisis shrink the bank much more than during the SGF. Comparing to LAG, BIN Paris keeps its ability steady to pay expenses and generates stable net income from 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2012. According to the main capital raising activity of BIN is trading on derivatives and other financial instruments, even though the amounts of financial liabilities and assets at fair value through profit or loss were Jumped up during the year of SGF 2008. However, the net income and total operating income were historically low through 2007 to 2012, the main reason was due to both the net gains on trading financial instruments and on available-for-sale financial assets had been dramatically decreased, respectively from Ã ²?7,mom to Ã ²?2,mom and Ã ²?2,mom to Ã ²?mom, which means, even though the trading went up, but net gains were limited by the worst market condition during Global Financial Crisis. Overall, BIN is good at controlling on its expenses and net income generation compare to the performance of LAG. . 2. 4 ASSET UTILIZATION (AU) Definition: see footnoted Figure 9 The AU ratio of LAG fluctuated seriously from 2007 to 2012. Due to given the negative impact of SGF, the AU dropped continuously to 0. 71% in 2009. As we mentioned previously, the central bank cut the interest rate to encourage people to take loan from the bank. Therefore, the total asset stayed at a higher level from 2009 to 2012. However, according to low inte rest rate and also some of customers were default to pay back, the total operating income did not change much. From 2009 to 2010, AU starts to recover to higher level. Unfortunately, the AU decreased sharply again from . 17% to 0. 47% due to the European debt crisis. The AU still maintained at lower level during 2010 to 2012, because the pound was depreciated in this weak economic period, LAG faced loss in their oversea investment property and securities, consequently, the total operating income decreased to about E,mom during the debt crisis. LAG provided a declining pattern over 2007 to 2012, but again, the impact of debt crisis to the bank was greater than the impact of SGF. In term of Buns AU, it had been dropped down to 0. 46% in regards to the history low total operating income, given only Ã ²?3,mom in 2008. It recovered quickly afterwards and went back to 0. 63% in 2010. The AU ratio fluctuated by the European debt crisis again in later 2011 and 2012, however, as we mentioned above in the PM part, the Global Financial Crisis affected the bank much more than the effect on debt crisis. Comparing LAG and Buns AllÃ¢â¬â¢s, both of them had greater effects by SGF but the impact of debt crisis was not significant on BIN. . 2. 5 EQUITY MULTIPLIER (ME) Definition: see footnoted Figure 10 In term of LagÃ¢â¬â¢s ME, The figure increased nearly half of ME from 28. 4 to 44. 96 in 2008. The higher ME indicated that LAG used more debt to finance its assets which in turn increased the leverage level and risk exposure during SGF 2008. In order to reduce its leverage level, ME quickly dropped down to 23. 29 in 2009 even lower than in 2007 and gradually went down i n the following years, noticed that the ME only shown at 20. 69 in 2012. As LAG is one of the reliable and stable banks in British, even though they experienced SGF and European debt crisis, they are able to recover quickly. Regarding to the ME of BIN, it had been increased to 35. In 2008 but had a greater decreased of 10 in the following year and still gradually went down in continuous years. Considering BIN changed its liability structure twice respectively in 2009 and 2011, in which shifted the major capital raising activity between derivatives trading and deposits. BIN attempted the first change in order to minimize the risks and reduce the leverage level due to the high ME in the previous year. In 2011, after the European debt crisis, the bank again changed its major capital raising activity back to trading on financial instruments instead of relying on posits. This change had been reduced its ME ratio continuously which given that only around 20 in 2012 (the lowest from 2007 to 2012) It explains that BIN is good at controlling its leverage level and managing risks very well via adjusting the Banks structure. In conclusion, LAG and BIN have similar performance from 2007 to 2012. The ME of these two banks both had a greater Jump up in 2008 and respectively increased their risk exposures and the leverage ratios. However, the EMUS dropped quickly in later years due to both banks managed the risk via reduce their debt to enhance its assets or maintaining capital structure in order to reduce risks and leverage level. 1. 2. 6 Market Indicators Share Prices LAG Regarding LAG, the share price stays at EYE per share in 2007 to late 2008. However, due to the SGF happen at the end of 2008, the share price decreasing dramatically to around E per shares. Furthermore, the European debt crisis also happen flow the SGF, the share price decreasing further around E per share. Base on the data shows that, over these six years, the share price of LAG is decreasing around 89. 1 BIN The highest share price of BIN Paris was up to Ã ²?94. 7 per share during mid-2007, it collapsed in later 2008 and down to history low Ã ²?21. 39 per share in early 2009. However, the share price went back on track quickly in the same year, given that volatile at the range around Ã ²?50 per share until mid-2011. According to the share price pattern of BIN, the impact of SGF on the share price was dramatically huge, but the bank effectively reacted on the massive change of market, it adjusted its capital structure in 2009, such as reduced the risk exposure via decreasing the risky derivatives trading and relying more on deposits, meanwhile increased the issue of bet securities particularly in bonds, which indicated to generate more efficient cash flows in case of the deposits was not enough to rely on. Project 2 2. 2 Market Risk 2. . 1 Introduction of market risk Market risk is defined as a risk for those investors to experience economic losses of value from the affected market performances, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s treatable or not. It is the risk that cannot be diversified. Some of risk factors could be observed, such as interest rates, exchange rates; there are also some factors may not be observed such as correlations which are based on statistical analysis. It includes interest rate risks, cu rrency risks, and equity risks, see footnotes. How to cite Analysis of banksÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
The campaign for inclusive education has been going on since MannÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition of Ã¢â¬Å"common schoolsÃ¢â¬ in the early 19th century. The current American society is more heterogeneous hence, the rationale for inclusionary education practices.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Personal position on Inclusionary practices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, what is inclusive education? Inclusion refers to a community of learners, which involves a variety of races, cultures, religion, and level of learners in terms of different learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, physical and cognitive disabilities (Miller and Katz, p. 20). Inclusion thus creates a friendly learning environment that grants learners an experience of the heterogeneity in the society. Inclusion means educating students with disabilities in the regular classrooms as well as mixing students from different ethnic, reli gious and socio-economic backgrounds under one classroom (Hastings and Oakford, p. 87). This provides a free and appropriate public education system for all children irrespective of their race, culture, financial background, and capabilities. Hence, inclusion promises success for the disadvantaged child. Inclusionary practices provide a vehicle for realizing federal and state mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that require educators to grant all children an equal opportunity to education. Further, putting students with disabilities and other limiting factors in a regular classroom provides an opportunity for the less fortunate children to experience their full potential in an inclusive community and hence have a sense of belonging both in school and in the community. Inclusive education in practice is more complicated hence requires certain strategies for its success. For inclusive education to be successfu l, all parties must share the values of inclusion. This means that everyone involved in the education system must be aware of the importance of mixing all types of students irrespective of their race, culture, financial background, disabilities and so on in one classroom. This will go a long way towards ensuring that learners do not feel left out and discriminated against. Consequently, children will develop a sense of belonging and will be able to perform to their full potential academically.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children with cognitive limitations may think and reason at a much slower rate than ordinary children. Putting them in a class with students who have a higher IQ helps them in that their minds are triggered to work almost as fast as their counterparts do. Such children should be encouraged to be able to cope in the classroom. Hence, it is important for te achers and students to value these individuals and appreciate their differences (Hastings and Oakford, p. 90). As Shafik Abu-Tahir states, Ã¢â¬Å"Inclusion is recognizing that we are one even though we are not the sameÃ¢â¬ (Dattilo, p.26) One of the major barriers to inclusion is negative attitude. Students and teachers have a tendency of developing bad attitudes towards students who are not of their race, or because they come from a poor background. Teachers may not want to include them in school activities such as school trips and symposiums. This may make such students feel unwanted and left out and eventually develop a low self-esteem. As a result, such students may become rebellious, and register poor academic performance, anti-social behavior and other unruly traits. Therefore, it is imperative that teachers and students understand and appreciate each other regardless of their different backgrounds. In conclusion, inclusion is the solution to the problems our schools face d ue to increased social heterogeneity in the society. Once students from various backgrounds, including those with disabilities and other limitations develop a sense of belonging, their self-esteem will rise and their interest in school will be at its peak. Hence, students will be able to realize their full potential because of the equal opportunities granted to them. Works Cited Dattilo, John. Inclusive Leisure Services: Responding to the Rights of People with Disabilities. 2nd ed. State college: PA Venture Publishing, 2002. Print. Hastings, Richard, P. and Oakford, Suzanna. Student TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Needs. Educational Psychology 23.1 (2003): 87-94. Print.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Personal position on Inclusionary practices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, Frederick and Katz, Judith. The Inclusion Breakthrough: Unleashing the Real P ower of Diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002. Print. This research paper on Personal position on Inclusionary practices was written and submitted by user Blaze Banks to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
airman leadership Essay airman leadership Essay AF Strategic Initiative Good afternoon. I am 1sgt hekmat and today IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to briefly talk about how and why the Air Force Culture and Language center was established. Then, I will talk about some of their responsibilities in the development of the Airmen of today. Finally, I will show you how the Center is transforming the Air ForceÃ¢â¬â¢s way of doing business in the constantly changing global environment. To start, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at how the center was created. The Air Force Culture
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Teacher Responsibilities Make It a Weighty Job What do students, parents, administrators and the community really expect of teachers? Obviously, teachers must educate students in certain academic subjects, but society also wants teachers to encourage adherence to a generally accepted code of conduct. The measurable responsibilities speak to the significance of the job, but certain personal qualities might better indicate a teachers potential for long-term success. Teachers Need an Aptitude for Teaching Teachers must be able to explain their subject matter to students, but this goes beyond simply reciting the knowledge they gained through their own education. Teachers must possess an aptitude to teach the material through different methods based on the needs of the students. Teachers must also meet the needs of students of varying abilities within the same classroom, provide all students with an equal opportunity to learn. Teachers must be able to inspire students from diverse backgrounds and experiences to achieve. Teachers Need Strong Organizational Skills Teachers must be organized. Without a good system of organization and daily procedures in place, the job of teaching becomes more difficult. A disorganized teacher could find him or herself in professional jeopardy. If a teacher does not keep accurate attendance, grade and behavioral records, it could result in administrative and legal problems. Teachers Need Common Sense and Discretion Teachers must possess common sense. The ability to make decisions grounded in common sense leads to a more successful teaching experience. Teachers who make judgment errors often create difficulties for themselves and sometimes even the profession. Teachers must maintain the confidentiality of student information, particularly for students with learning disabilities. Teachers can create professional problems for themselves by being indiscreet, but they can also lose the respect of their students, affecting their potential for learning. Teachers Need To Be Good Role Models Teachers must present themselves as aÃ good role modelÃ both in and out of the classroom. A teachers private life can impact his or her professional success. A teacher who participates in questionable activitiesÃ during personal time can experience a loss of moral authority in the classroom. While its true that varying sets of personal morals exist among segments of society, a generally accepted standard for basic rights and wrongs dictates acceptable personal behavior for teachers. Every career has its own level of responsibility, and its perfectly reasonable to expect teachers to meet their professional obligations and responsibilities. Doctors, lawyers and other professionals operate with similar responsibilities and expectations for patient and client privacy. But society often holds teachers to an even higher standard because of their position of influence with children. Its clear that childrenÃ learn best with positive role models who demonstrate the types of behavior that lead to personal success. Though written in 1910, the words of Chauncey P. Colegrove in his book The Teacher and the School still ring true today: No one can justly expect that all teachers, or any teacher, shall be endlessly patient, free from mistakes, always perfectly just, a miracle of good temper, unfailingly tactful, and unerring in knowledge. But people have a right to expect that all teachers shall have fairly accurate scholarship, some professional training, average mental ability, moral character, some aptness to teach, and that they shall covet earnestly the best gifts.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Can technology benefit education - Essay Example ng system in colleges and universities plays an important role in the availing information for coursework to students registered with the institutions. The tutors upload the necessary information on the developed program and the students access it with the help of an individual username and a password (Selwyn, 77). The use of technology in this manner is convenient to both the learner and the tutor because both parties are relieved from hard copies as sources of information. The use of hard copy is bulky in terms of carrying and expensive to purchase. Printing out of information on soft copy is cost effective compared to purchasing a published book. For these reasons, the availability of coursework in the form of soft copy through an E-learning system is beneficial in educating the students because it is conveniently accessible and inexpensive. Implementation of digitized library systems in secondary and tertiary levels of education simplifies book searching, borrowing and returning. Instances where additional research or extensive reading on a discipline is a recommendation, visiting the library is inevitable. The automated access to published books by the tutee aids in proper management of time. The utilization of technology in this way wards off wastage of time by availing books with ease putting the learner at an advantage. In this case, technological education in light of time is effective. The use of E-mails to communicate and face-face platforms such as Skype to name a few allow real-time interaction between the student and educator. For this reason, distance learning is popular. In both secondary and tertiary levels of education, individuals are able to learn with convenience by interacting with the tutor through a webcam or messenger irrespective of their location. Assignments and assessments are coordinated through e-mails and websites. Examinations and assessments are carried out on real-time basis where the learner submits and receives results when